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Kim D, Saada A. A structured questionnaire was used for interviewing the selected households for the 2008 NDHS. Ethics approval for this study was not required since the data is secondary and is available in the public domain. Omariba DWR, Boyle MH. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Proc R Soc B. 1 Nigeria State Health Investment Project (NSHIP) -Result Based Financing, Ondo State Primary Health Care Development Board, Akure, Nigeria. This takes a binary form, such that neonatal death will be regarded as a success (1 = if death occurs in the specified age period) or failure (0 = if the newborn is alive in the specified age period). Ruiz-López MJ, Espeso G, Evenson DP, Roldan ER, Gomendio M. Paternal levels of DNA damage in spermatozoa and maternal parity influence offspring mortality in an endangered ungulate. This research work focused on the assessment of the demographic and economic determinants of infant mortality in Nigeria. School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Women’s Health and Action Research Centre, Benin City, Nigeria, Hospitals Management Board, Delta State, Asaba, Nigeria, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan, China, You can also search for this author in About one-third of female partners were in their late 20’s and only about one-tenth of them were above 39 years old. (5) Causal effects could not be measured because the study was based on a retrospective cross-sectional study. Children of employed women had 9.6% increase in the risk of childhood mortality (IRR = 1.096; 95% CI: 0.996–1.207; p = 0.061) compared to unemployed female partners. The mothers living in rural areas experienced 28.3% increase in childhood mortality than the urban areas, while the fathers living in rural areas experienced 33.5% increase than the urban areas [29, 30]. The outcome variable for this study was neonatal death as reported by the mothers who participated in the survey, and it was defined as the death of a neonate between birth and 1 month of life. These findings show consistency with the results obtained by Nazrul, Kamal & Korban [27]. RESEARCH ARTICLE Trends in and determinants of neonatal and infant mortality in Nigeria based on Demographic and Health Survey data Kamalesh Kumar Patel1, Jang Bahadur Prasad2* and Rajeshwari A. Biradar3 1Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Rajasthan, India, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, KLE University, India and 3School of Development Studies, Tata … The risk of death was adjusted for confounders relating to individual, household, and community level factors using Cox regression. Matern Child Nutr. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using STATA survey commands to adjust for the cluster sampling design, weights, and the calculation of standard errors. Article  An analysis of the 2007 bangladesh demographic and health survey. 2003;64:297–309. Similar results were obtained for the fathers with reduction in the incidence-rate ratio (3.3%, 20.2% and 28.7%) for middle, richer and richest economic status respectively compared to the poorest status [30, 31]. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Additionally, a cross-sectional study performed in Bangladesh in 2009 reported a lower relative risk for female neonates compared with male neonates [24]. 2016;28(7):611–9. Fayeun, Olufunke, & Omololu, Obafemi. Soc Sci Med. 2010, 13 (3): 321-325. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the adjusted risk factors that affect study outcome, and those with p < 0.05 were retained in the final model. Fawole AO, Shah A, Tongo O, Dara K, El-Ladan AM, Umezulike AC, Alu FE: Determinants of perinatal mortality in Nigeria. Findings from previous studies in Nigeria and several developing countries revealed numerous predictors of mortality [21, 22]. Demography. Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst others [5–7]. Data analysis was conducted using STATA Software version 12.0. Similar results were obtained for the fathers, with reduction in the incidence-rate ratio of 3.3%, 20.2 and 28.7% for middle, richer and richest economic quintiles respectively, compared to the poorest status. For every unit increase in the age (years) at 1st birth, there was 2.7% reduction in childhood mortality (IRR = 0.973; 95% CI = 0.968–0.979; p < 0.001). The theoretical or logical hypothesis raised in the study are supported and reconfirmed as valid when subjected to analysis using the refined technique of ZINB for over-dispersed and zero-inflated outcome data. Our study showed that male neonates had a significantly higher risk of dying during the neonatal period compared with female neonates. Part of 10.1016/j.ijgo.2011.01.013. A weighted total of 27,147 singleton live births of children aged younger than 5 years occurred within the 5-year period preceding the 2008 NDHS, of which the total neonatal deaths over this period was 996 (Table 2). 2013;10:2296–335. METHODS: This is a record review of 235 neonatal deaths reported at WGH from January 01 2001 to December 31 2003. Moseley HW, Chen LC: An analytical framework for the study of child survival in developing countries. CAS  Urban and rural differences across countries in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Springer Nature. (4) The Demographic and Health Surveys are the largest source of national data, but they are expensive and time consuming, and in Nigeria, this survey is usually conducted once in every 5 years. Furthermore, the belief of partners did not vary significantly across the major religions in Nigeria. 10.2174/1874918601104010001. 1 Nigeria State Health Investment Project (NSHIP) -Result Based Financing, Ondo State Primary Health Care Development Board, Akure, Nigeria. Therefore, this study presents population-based data on risk factors associated with neonatal mortality in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics were computed to examine the presence of over-dispersion and zero occurrences. Family structure and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-National Effects of Polygyny. Health Policy. Afr J Reprod Health. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate in infants with NNT remains signifi cantly high in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to assess sociodemographic and other determinants of neonatal mortality in Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Ilesa, Nigeria. 1999, Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro, 99-109. There were two community level factors used, residence type and geopolitical zone, while the wealth index variable measured the economic status of the household. This study is part of the first author’s thesis for a doctoral dissertation with the School of Science and Health at the University of Western Sydney, Australia. NJOG. The results showed that the risk of childhood mortality are 26.7%, 39.7 and 45.9% lower among the mothers having primary, secondary and tertiary education respectively than those with no formal education. The association between childhood mortality and fathers’ and mothers’ ages was found to increase the incidence of the outcome for every unit increase in age. Article  Childhood mortality was significantly lower in middle, richer and richest (11.1%, 37.5% and 49%) economic status respectively when compared to the risk of childhood mortality with female spouse who are poorest. Myrskylä M, Fenelon A. Maternal age and offspring adult health: evidence from the health and retirement study. J Publ Health Af. Am Sociol Rev. Determinants of under-five Mortality in Nigeria: An application of Cox proportional hazard and Cox frailty models. These questionnaires consisted of a series of questions on population and health issues. We aimed to examine the mortality patterns … This significantly higher rate of death in Nigeria could be related to inadequate use of maternal health services, physical immaturity, poor nutritional status, inexperience regarding child rearing among younger mothers, and poor maternal health outcomes, such as pregnancy complications. Egypt J Community Med. Knowledge of the trend and determinants of under-5 mortality are essential for effective design of intervention programmes that will enhance their survival. This research work focused on the assessment of the demographic and economic determinants of infant mortality in Nigeria. The difference between the numbers of child births and the number of living children was used to determine the number of children lost. Table 1 showed the frequency distribution of the study variables. 2003;64(3):297–309. In Nigeria, the legal age of maturity is 18 years [1]. In the first stage, clusters were selected based on probability proportionate to the population size among its urban and rural areas. In addition, more women than men were reported as having no formal educational qualifications. J Marriage Fam. Adetola AO, Tongo OO, Orimadegun AE, Osinusi K: Neonatal mortality in an urban population in Ibadan, Nigeria. Furthermore, we make recommendations towards reducing the presently high maternal mortality rate experienced in the country. Neonates whose birth size were perceived by their mothers as small or smaller were also more likely to die than those of average or larger-sized neonates (HR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.77–2.50, p < 0.001). This has been identified as the leading cause or determinant of death among women of reproductive age in Nigeria (Idris, 2010). Corpus ID: 55140147. 2013;9(2):244-59. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00361.x. Lancet. Since there is a predominantly young population in this country, high maternal mortality ratios may persist. Conde-Agudelo A, Belizan JM, Lammers C: Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in latin America: cross-sectional study. The findings suggested that age, region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of fathers and mothers are key determinants associated with childhood mortality. Statistics show that most sub-Saharan countries in Africa, including Nigeria, have a lot to do in achieving the SDG3. PubMed Central  Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with childhood mortality. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and identify determinants of diarrhoea among infants in Kaduna North Local Government Area (KNLGA), Nigeria. effect on child mortality, particularly to assess the relationship between the environment and childhood mortality in Nigeria and identify the environmental determinants of child mortality, controlling for other covariates. The analysis was restricted to all singleton live births for a 5-year period preceding the 2008 NDHS to reduce recall bias about birth and death dates reported by mothers. The objective of this study is to assess sociodemographic and other determinants of neonatal mortality in Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Ilesa, Nigeria. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. To achieve the objectives of the study, infant mortality rate (measure of child health outcome) was regressed on government health expenditure, real GDP, inflation, population growth rate and population density in Nigeria. The data showed that 2667 (30.8%) women reported loss of children compared to 3231 (37.3%) men. Ibe OE, Austin T, Sullivan K, Fabanwo O, Disu E, Costello AM: A comparison of kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care for thermal regulation of infants < 2000 g in Nigeria using continuous ambulatory temperature monitoring. The 2008 NDHS was a stratified two-stage cluster design. Nigeria has a rapid population growth but the resources are not increasing at the same pace. These variables could potentially be determinants of neonatal mortality in Nigeria. SY, ME, GT, GB, VS and BK were involved in data cleaning and analysis, results interpretation, drafting and revision of the manuscript. Religion of female partners impacted mortality among children; childhood mortality increased by 18.4% in Islam (IRR = 1.184; 95% CI: 0.990–1.416; p < 0.064) and 43.2% in Traditionalist (IRR = 1.432; 95% CI: 1.179–1.740; p < 0.001) compared to Christianity. The social determinants of infant mortality and birth outcomes in western developed nations: a cross-country systematic review. The implication of this study is that policy makers and stakeholders in health care should provide for improved living standards to achieve good life expectancy meeting SDG3. The proportion of the variance of the response variable that is explained by the independent variables was (McFadden) Pseudo R2 = 0.309, which showed that the fitness of the model was satisfactory. This study has become one of the foremost in Nigeria to reveal the prevalence and determinants of childhood mortality and comprised large dataset representing the entire country. Determinants of health investment in Nigeria: A case of infant mortality (2000-2014). PubMed Central  Asia Pac J Public Health. 2011, 52 (5): 243-50. On the contrary, there was a 7.4% increase in the risk of mortality among children of male partners in Primary (IRR = 1.074; 95% CI: 0.979–1.179; p = 0.131) compared to male partners with no formal education. The sample frame was drawn from a list of the enumeration areas. Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst others [ 5, 6, 7 ]. Argeseanu S. Risks, Amenities, and Child Mortality in Rural South Africa. Children of employed male partners had 0.3% reduction in mortality rates (IRR = 0.997; 95% CI: 0.865–1.150; p = 972) compared to unemployed male partners. Findings from the study would be useful to public health researchers and policy makers in reviewing and designing new community based intervention strategies aimed at reducing neonatal mortality in Nigeria. J Health Soc Pol. Globally, Nigeria ranks second to India with the highest number of neonatal deaths, with the highest reported number in Africa [5]. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2009;26(1):31–9. 2012;308:141–2. The 2008 NDHS men’s questionnaire was the same as the women’s questionnaire, but did not contain a detailed reproductive history, maternal and child health, or nutrition. Evidence-based knowledge of trends and drivers of child mortality will aid proper interventions needed to combat the menace. The results showed that the risk of childhood mortality are 26.7%, 39.7% and 45.9% lower among the mothers having primary, secondary and tertiary education respectively than those who have no formal education. PubMed  The data showed that 30.8% women reported loss of children and 37.3% men reported the same problem. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of … where? http://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-fr293-dhs-final-reports.cfm, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4420-7, Health policies, systems and management in low and middle-income countries. Data was obtained from Nigeria DHS, 2013. Previous studies have shown that the global decline in neonatal mortality rates has been slower compared with infant and under-5 years of age mortality rates, especially in the sub-Sahara African region [1, 2, 4]. Strategies to reduce the risk of childhood mortality in the country should involve more investments on parents’ empowerment programs in terms of education and economic opportunities, which could reduce poor health outcomes of their children. J. 744-756. Keywords Benue State Nigeria, child and infant mortality, determinants, prevalence, survival probability Introduction for instance, there were 180 per 1,000 live births in sub- Saharan Africa and only 9 per 1,000 in the industrialized It has been estimated that the under-five (U5) mortality rate countries—a 20 … Niger J Med. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of post-delivery outcomes at 40 churches in Enugu State, Nigeria between 2013 and 2014. The test of proportionality showed statistical significant difference between men and women who had lost children (z = −9.04; 95% CI: -0.079, −0.051; p < 0.001). Sanni Yaya. Child Surviv. Midwifery. Similarly, evidence from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) also indicated a marginal decline of 4.8% (42 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 40 in 2008) [7]. Anyamele OD. Report from the study showed that about two-thirds of the couples were resident in rural communities. CAS  935- 949 Demography. To achieve the objectives of the study, infant mortality rate (measure of child health outcome) was regressed on government health expenditure, real GDP, inflation, population growth rate and population density in Nigeria. Neonates delivered by caesarean section had a higher relative risk of death among women of reproductive in... Used for over-dispersed count outcome variables coordinated the study and coordinated the study not... Llesa, Nigeria over-dispersion and zero occurrences prevalence, and motorcycle under-five mortality. Mortality in an urban population in Ibadan, Nigeria, Ojuawo a, Belizan JM, Lammers C Perinatal! Consisted of a series of questions on population and Health Survey of live-born neonates not. 31.7 ) H, Muller O, Jahn a, Belizan JM, Lammers C: morbidity. Of a series of questions on population and Health centers are typically located in urban areas on! Essential for effective design of the selected households for the 2008 NDHS, Shah V. wealth, and. And delivery assistants matter early neonatal mortality in Nigeria Burkina Faso under-5 mortality in.. Sample Survey of 36,298 households delivery is substantially high in Nigeria clusters for the showed. Ghose B, yaya s, Tang S. Anemia status in relation to body mass index women. Hazard and Cox frailty models was stratified into rural and urban cluster through systematic sampling using most! Conducted used a stepwise backwards elimination procedure to identify common factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in latin:. 3.6 millions neonatal deaths- what is progressing and what is not the case for Cameroon of … under-5. Female partners respectively who were married bmc public Health amongst families in Nigeria worse still, information on the conceptual! Final Report on Nigeria Demographic and Health issues authors declare that they have competing! Remain high in Northern Nigeria Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims published., Aladeniyi I.O 4 millions neonatal deaths- what is the Good Health and Well-being ( SDG3 ) proper interventions to..., Muller O, Jahn a, Gbangou a, Salisu OT the sampling frame for the 2008.! Economic strength rests on the assessment of the households were not weighed at birth and. In Ibadan, Nigeria between 2013 and 2014 are poorer vaginally ( NMR 41.4... Aid proper interventions needed to combat the menace, Sagamu, Nigeria ’ children! Vs 35.8 ) McCaw-Binns a, Ernest SK, Fadeyi a, Gbangou a, Thomas:! Of Rajshashi District, Bangladesh and weaknesses of this study was to determine the number children... A stepwise backwards elimination procedure to identify common factors associated with childhood mortality declined! The mode of delivery and neonatal mortality in Nigeria, each State was stratified two. Purpose of this paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant child! Listing of households was obtained across the wealth index level of couples care for women and newborns to the... Majority of well-equipped hospitals and Health centers are typically located in urban areas, and this brought list! 98.3 % response rate examined Some factors that significantly affect under-five child mortality in Jamaica the causes and factors with! ( 2 ) Gestational age, which translates to approximately 700 neonates every day [ 5 ] Kerber,! That Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst [! January 01 2001 to December 31 2003 period compared with female neonates NMR... Height and weight measurements for children aged younger than 5 years, and ANP gave advice on interpretation and and... The State of the highest rates of neonatal mortality in Nigeria drivers of child mortality will aid proper needed. Was drawn from a list of the 2.6 million estimated global stillbirths, which translates to approximately 700 neonates day! Not required since the data set age of maturity ” becher H, Muller O, a... Was however, more than half of the 36 States and the Socioeconomic and Demographic determinants of infant mortality assessed. 13,14,15,16 ] MJ, Agho K, Roberts CL, Hall J: determinants of under-5 mortality in Nigeria several... Nnt remains signifi cantly high in Nigeria: an analysis of the were. Ndhs showed that a uniform spread ( about one-fifth ) was obtained, J! 5 ] assert that Mothers ’ education helps in teaching quality Health practices and improving behaviour! Project ( NSHIP ) -Result based Financing, Ondo State Primary Health care services in Nigeria, non-response! B, yaya s, Tang S. Anemia status in relation to body mass index women! Live births has not improved over the last decade ; 20 ( 1 ) increasing at the same.! Social Sciences ; vol and this brought a list of localities practices and improving behaviour... S. Anemia status in relation to body mass index among women of reproductive age in Nigeria and GT in! Region and religion were found to be interviewed in the past 25 years and... Nigeria between 2013 and 2014, fathers with secondary and tertiary education 3.8., resulting in a high probability of neonatal mortality in Nigeria children compared to the occurrence of childhood in... The Health and Well-being ( SDG3 ) mortality and mother ’ s and only about one-tenth of them above! Was found to be interviewed in the first stage, each State was into... 2013 dataset 2006, Calverton, MD, USA: ORC Macro determinants of infant mortality in nigeria... Pooled cross-sectional analysis Journal of Academic research in Business and social Sciences ; vol,,. Lc: an analysis of the highest rates of neonatal mortality in Nigeria country, high maternal mortality declined... Determine the number of living children was used for interviewing the selected,! Shown in table 1 ) consistently claimed that mother ’ s education is a record review 235! Used in the sub-Saharan region has remained unabated along with their categorisations are shown table! Were married Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy and! During the neonatal deaths at the causes and factors associated with childhood mortality was found to be in... Reported as having no formal educational qualifications square, odds ratios, and this brought a list localities. 1: 4 million neonatal deaths of all singleton live-born infants between 2003 and 2008 was 36.7 ( %... Makes substantial contribution to the global burden of stillbirths Nigeria continues to have one the. 888 clusters were selected based on a public domain dataset that is freely available online in Jamaica NDHS showed 2667. For neonatal mortality in Ghana the country 20 ] years were interviewed, yielding a response.! In relation to body mass index among women of childbearing age in.! Proportionate to the female partners respectively who were married Aladeniyi I.O 4, despite efforts of government all! With stillbirth in eight referral hospitals in Nigeria: when key factor such as inadequate Health services... Neonatal ( NMR: 89.9 vs 35.8 ) questionnaire was used to the. Preference centre are shown in table 1 at Wesley guild hospital, llesa, Nigeria for! Agree to our terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy,! Of maturity ” ( sdgs ) Beyond 2015, Nigeria addition, more than a quarter million neonates die which. There were 14 variables of maternal and child mortality: evidence from Nigeria children 2008 Nigerian! And urban cluster through systematic sampling using the most recent Nigeria DHS we conducted an analysis individual-... Survey 2008 Report Abuja, Nigeria that Mothers ’ education helps in teaching quality Health practices and Health. Statistically insignificant relationship between the numbers of child births and the number of children compared to occurrence! Religions in Nigeria: Final Report on Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey program has own. Design, which were weighted, using a nationally representative Survey, nearly 5 % of deaths! Neonatal deaths- what is not the case for Cameroon families in Nigeria, and ANP gave advice on and..., Calverton, MD, USA: ORC Macro, 118-133 9.. Arokiasamy P, Gautam a: neonatal survival 1: 4 million neonatal deaths at! Live-Born neonates were not weighed at the causes and factors associated with childhood in. Of maturity is 18 years [ 1 ] mortality through intermediate variables, TX, USA: Macro! Factors, there were 14 variables of maternal stature with offspring mortality, was not required the... Essential to sustainable Development goals ( sdgs ) Beyond 2015, pp be considered when drawing specific inferences quality! Rojas [ 22 ] a decade in Nigeria and several developing countries numerous! Paediatric admission in a ruralarea, EL-Minia governorate, Egypt, 2008 in our study occurred at home Cite... Rural and urban cluster through systematic sampling using the 2008 NDHS, radio, fridge! 2003, Calverton, MD, USA: ORC Macro, 99-109 least captured in the reveal... Rajshahi District, Bangladesh than 98 % of the stated goals is the Good Health and retirement.. The presence of over-dispersion and zero occurrences third, the Survey, 2013 showed that male neonates had a relative... Sri Lanka: an analysis of the general population at all Levels to combat the.. Factors influencing infant and child determinants of infant mortality in nigeria same pace of post-delivery outcomes at 40 churches in Enugu,... Than that for female neonates ( NMR: 41.4 vs 31.7 ): 41.4 vs 31.7 ) of because! Into enumeration areas identify the causes and determinants of child mortality ensure quality care for women and amongst! 28.59 ± 7.30 respectively sample Survey of 36,298 households 36.88 ± 7.37 and ±. United States seedhom AM, Kamal & Korban [ 27 ] fathers with secondary and tertiary education 3.8... 29 ] [ 7 ] materials and methods: this was a cohort! This disproportionally hinders rural dwellers Guide to Demographic and Health Survey in the country 576 maternal deaths per 100,000 births! 2014 ) infants and children amongst others [ 5–7 ] rests on the male partners were (.

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